In the steelmaking sector, environmental factors are driving the innovation from iron and steel making down to development of lighter and stronger steel for consumer industries.
The steel industry accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. Average greenhouse gas emissions from BF-BOF route is 2.2t of CO2 per ton of steel while from EAF is 0.5t of CO2 per ton of steel. About 70% of total global steel production relies directly on inputs of coal. Carbon is 95% responsible for CO2 emissions while limestone adds 5%. The main sources of CO2 emissions in steel mills are power plants, iron ore reduction, coke and sinter production.